Capstone Experience Topic Sample Paper

Capstone Experience Topic Sample Paper

Capstone Experience Topic (Nosocomial Infections)

            Infections and infectious diseases are some of the common conditions healthcare professionals deal with on a day-to-day practice. Within the hospital, patients can acquire infections that were not present during admission. Similarly, in the course of their work, healthcare providers can also contract infections. These infections are known as nosocomial infections or health associated infections (HAI). Sikora and Zahra (2020) define HAI as the infections that are acquired after admission and typically manifest 48-hours post hospitalization. The settings where the infections are acquired include hospitals, ambulatory settings and long-term care facilities (Sikora & Zahra, 2020). In modern care, the risk factors associated with the infections are indwelling devices, invasive surgical procedures, prosthetic devices and susceptible host such as immune compromised patients. Various pathogens implicated in the etiology of HAI are broadly classified into bacterial, viral and fungal.

Significance of the Topic

            The infections affect a massive number of patients worldwide making it a global healthcare concern. Healthcare settings in both the developed and developing countries face the burden of the HAI. Due to its associated prolonged hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and financial burden, it remains an unresolved predicament. A study by Khan, Baig and Mehboob, (2017) report that huge number of patients, approximately 15% of all hospitalized individuals, end up acquiring the infections. The infections cause adverse consequences particularly in neonates, with a mortality rate of 4%-56% (Khan et al., 2017). Studies from South East Asia and Sub Saharan Africa indicate an incidence rate of 75% among the neonates (Khan et al., 2017).

Further studies on the economic burden of HIA provide evidence that management of the infections is expensive. For instance, a study in the United States reveal that medical costs incurred towards management of surgical site infections due to Vancomycin resistant enterococci are about $12,766 (Puchter et al., 2018). Even though the statistics are available, worldwide burden is unknown due to the unavailable surveillance systems for nosocomial infections. The worldwide prevalence is however likely to be higher with greater burden as compared to the impact on the specific countries. The burden of the HAI is an adequate impetus for the quest of preventive strategies spearheaded by the World Health Organization.